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S-isomer Ketamine

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S-isomer Ketamine is a racemic mixture of the enantiomers R-ketamine and S-ketamine (esketamine). S-ketamine has greater analgesic and anesthetic effects than R-ketamine and is less likely to cause psychotomimetic and other adverse effects.

S-isomer Ketamine is a racemic mixture of the enantiomers R-ketamine and S-ketamine (esketamine). S-isomer Ketamine has greater analgesic and anesthetic effects than R-ketamine and is less likely to cause psychotomimetic and other adverse effects. There is therefore an emerging interest favoring the use of S-ketamine over racemic ketamine when the drug is used for analgesia or anesthesia. This article examines preclinical and clinical literature on the antidepressant properties of S-ketamine.

Animal data suggest potential advantages for R-ketamine over S-ketamine. Case reports, case series, and some small randomized controlled trials suggest that single or repeated intravenous infusions (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) or intranasal administrations (28-84 mg) of S-ketamine have antidepressant action in patients with medication-refractory depression and that the observed benefits are similar in magnitude to the antidepressant benefits reported with racemic ketamine. However, there are no direct comparisons between S-ketamine and either R-ketamine or racemic ketamine in depressed patients; therefore, S-isomer Ketamine it is not possible to make an informed choice when considering the enantiomers and the racemate for the indication of depression.

The S(+)-isomer of ketamine has about twice the anaesthetic potency of the commercially available racemic mixture of ketamine. It is assumed that the known side-effects of ketamine are significantly reduced when administering half the usual dose with the same pharmacodynamic effect [17, 25].

The aim of the present study was to determine the haemodynamic effects, S-isomer Ketamine the catecholamine and cortisol plasma levels after administration of equally potent doses of S-(+)-Ketamine and racemic mixture of ketamine. In addition, S-isomer Ketamine the effect of premedication with i.v. midazolam was assessed. METHOD. After approval by the ethics committee and written informed consent, S-isomer Ketamine 30 healthy male volunteers were randomly allocated to three groups (n = 10). Group 1 received 2 mg/kg ketamine racemate, group 2 1 mg/kg S-(+)-Ketamine, and group 3 1 mg/kg S-(+)-Ketamine 5 min after i.v.-premedication with 0.1 mg/kg midazolam.

Non-invasive blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded. Blood samples were drawn 7 min before, and 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 min after drug administration. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) levels were determined by HPLC and cortisol plasma levels by RIA. Data were analysed with the Kruskal-Wallis test (P < or = 0.05) for differences between groups. RESULTS. HR and BP showed a significant rise after injection of racemate and isomer, without any significant differences between groups. This was also seen for norepinephrine and cortical plasma levels.

Epinephrine levels, however, S-isomer Ketamine  differed between groups, showing a significant rise after racemate compared to isomer. Premedication with midazolam, in contrast, blunted major haemodynamic and hormonal changes. DISCUSSION. The haemodynamic changes did not differ between the racemate and isomer group despite a reduced isomer dose. HR and BP rise were similar, S-isomer Ketamine although epinephrine levels were significantly lower after isomer than racemate.

Hence we assume that the increase in the haemodynamic parameters were mainly caused by NE. Midazolam apparently prevented the centrally mediated sympathetic stimulation caused by ketamine and its isomers. Therefore, i.v. premedication with midazolam should be applied when racemate or isomer is used, especially in high-risk cardiac patients.

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